Supernova Constraint on Self-Interacting Dark Sector Particles

Allan Sung, Gang Guo, Meng-Ru Wu 2021 Phys. Rev. D 103 103005

We examine the constraints on sub-GeV dark sector particles set by the proto-neutron star cooling associated with the core-collapse supernova event SN1987a. Considering explicitly a dark photon portal dark sector model, we compute the relevant interaction rates of dark photon (A) and dark fermion (χ) with the Standard Model particles as well as their self-interaction inside the dark sector. We find that even with a small dark sector fine structure constant αD1, dark sector self-interactions can easily lead to their own self-trapping. This effect strongly limits the energy luminosity carried away by dark sector particles from the supernova core and thus drastically affects the parameter space that can be constrained by SN1987a. We consider specifically two mass ratios mA=3mχ and 3mA=mχ which represent scenarios where the decay of A to χχ¯ is allowed or not. We show that SN1987a can only place bounds on the dark sector when αD1015 (107) for the former (latter) for mχ20 MeV. Furthermore, this evades the supernova bounds on the widely-examined dark photon parameter space completely if αD107 for the former, while lifts the bounds when αD107 if mχ100 MeV. Our findings thus imply that the existing supernova bounds on light dark particles can be generally evaded by a similar self-trapping mechanism. This also implies that non-standard strongly self-interacting neutrino is not consistent with the SN1987a observation. Same effects can also take place for other known stellar bounds on dark sector particles.