通俗演講

2021/02/25(Thu)     14:00 -16:00    一樓演講廳1st Floor(auditorium)

Title

Extracellular Vesicles Based Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

Speaker

Prof. L. James Lee

The Ohio State University, USA

Abstract

Liquid biopsy is a minimal or non-invasive early detection method that has the potential to reduce mortality rates of many major diseases such as cancer and virus infection. Current detection of soluble proteins in body fluids such as blood and urine suffers from high false positive rate, poor signal repeatability, and limited application range. Given their role in fundamental tumor biology, circulating non-coding RNAs and coding RNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers for cancer detection. Extracellular RNAs have been found to be stable in blood and other bodily fluids, partially attributable to their encapsulation within cell-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs). The current method for EV analysis uses either PCR, next generation sequencing and/or hybridization microarray to identify the presence of RNA targets, and LC-MS or ELISA to identify the presence of protein targets. These technologies involve breaking open all EVs in the sample to mix their contents, so they can only provide averaged information. Since EVs come from multiple cell sources, RNA and protein targets of cancer cells derived EVs are diluted in these analyses. In addition to serving as an extracellular biomarker, EVs also play major roles in cell-cell communications and drug carriers. Developing methods to analyze RNA and protein targets and levels at the individual EV level is essential for providing unique insights into mechanisms of EV-mediated biomolecule transfer. We have developed facile biochip technologies to detect target mRNAs and membrane proteins in individual EVs using advanced molecular probe designs, and to manipulate therapeutic RNA and targeting membrane protein formation in cell-secreted EVs. These biochip technologies have been successfully applied to detect and manipulate EV RNAs and proteins for cancer diagnosis and potentially for cancer therapy and regenerative medicine.